Stock Photo: Pandurina or discant lute from 1734 (left), Milanese mandoline lute decorated with mother-of-pearl from 1775 (centre), and Milanese mandoline lute decorated with tortoiseshell and ivory from 1739 (right). Chromolithograph from an illustration by William Gibb from A.J. Hipkins' "Musical Instruments, Historic, Rare and Unique," Adam and Charles Black, Edinburgh, 1888. Alfred James Hipkins (1826-1903) was an English musicologist who specialized in the history of the pianoforte and other instruments